Friday, 19/07/2024

Thua Thien Hue history


Thuan Hoa - Phu Xuan - Hue plays a very important role in Vietnam development history. Recent archeology discoveries show that human appeared in this land about 4000 to 5.000 years ago. Of all, relics such as stone axes, ceramics found at Phu O, Bau Dung (Huong Chu, Huong Tra) dated back less than 4.000 years ago. Stone axes aged less than 5.000 years were also found in many different sites, especially Hong Bac, Hong Van, Hong Ha, Hong Thuy, Bac Son (A Luoi district), Phong Thu commune (Phong Dien district).

Important archeology relics imbued with Sa Huynh culture were found for the first time in 1987 at Con Rang (La Chu, Huong Tra). This proves people had already had high material and spiritual life about 2.500 years ago. Traces of Sa Huynh culture were found in Cua Thieng (Phu Oc, Tu Ha, Huong Tra) in 1988. In addition to Sa Huynh culture, scientists also found relics which proves the existence of Dong Son culture in Thua Thien Hue. One of the evidences is a bronze drum found in Phong My commune, Phong Dien district in 1994. These are unique traces of ancient Vietnamese culture.

According to ancient documents, Thua Thien Hue used to be the habitant of diverse cultural community. It is believed that Thua Thien Hue used to belong to Bo Viet Thuong under Van Lang State. It was not until North colonization that Thua Thien Hue was under the management of Tuong Quan. In 116 BC, Nhat Nam was established and replaced Tuong Quan. After the historic victory of Ngo Quyen (938), Dai Viet was independent. Throughout centuries of development, Thua Thien Hue was the place where East culture and local culture met. In 1558, Nguyen Hoang ruled Thuan Hoa and started the reign of Nguyen Lord.

Ever since, Thuan Hoa - Phu Xuan was imbued with 9 Nguyen Lords in Dang Trong (South Vietnam). 3 centuries after Thuan Hoa was under the management of Dai Viet, it witnessed power struggle between Dang Trong (South Vietnam) and Dang Ngoai (North Vietnam). Therefore, no urban center was founded at the time. Hoa Chau (established in late XV century or early XVI century) only existed for a short time as the defensive citadel rather than urban areas of Thuan Hoa at the time. It was not until Lord Nguyen PhuLan had his premise moved to Kim Long in 1936 that the urbanization in Hue City formation and development history started. Over half a century later, Lord Nguyen Phuc Thai again had his premise move to Thuy Loi village and renamed as Phu Xuan (in the northwest of Hue Citadel today), continued to develop Phu Xuan as a prosperous urban center in Dang Trong (South Vietnam). Lord premise was moved to Bac Vong (1712-17230, then Vo Vuong had the main premise moved to Phu Xuan and constructed in the southeast of Hue citadel today.

The magnificence of Phu Xuan citadel under Nguyen Phuc Khoat’s reign was described by Le Quy Don in "Phu bien tap luc" in 1776 and "Dainam nhat thong chi" as a prosperous urban area by Huong river from Kim Long - Duong Xuan to Bao Vinh - Thanh Ha. Phu Xuan was the headquarter of Dang Trong (South Vietnam) from 1687 to 1774, the capital of Dai Viet under Quang Trung reign (1788-1801) and the capital of Vietnam (1802-1945). Phu Xuan - Hue, Thua Thien Hue has become an important center of politics, economy, art and culture since these historic periods.

In 1858, French - Spanish force attacked Da Nang, marking the invasion of the French colonialists of France. Then, America joined the war. Along with the entire country, Thua Thien Hue people got through two the revolution for national peace, independence and unification with victories and heroism.

Since French colonization to national liberation (1975), it was in Thua Thien Hue where powerful patriotic revolutions took place. Thua Thien Hue attracted revolutionists, for example, Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chu Trinh and patriots. Nguyen Sinh Cung (known as Nguyen Tat Thanh - President Ho Chi Minh) lived in province in nearly 10 years during his childhood. In 1916, Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi organized general offensive in many provinces. Emperor Duy Tan joined the event. The province is home to revolutionary movements, genius, excellent leaders of the Party and State, figures working in the fields of politics, social affairs, sciences such as Le Duan, Pham Van Dong, Vo Nguyen Giap, Tran Phu, Ha Huy Tap, Nguyen Chi Dieu, Phan Dang Luu, Hai Trieu, Nguyen KhanhToan, etc. In July 1929, Indo-Chinese Communist Party of Thua Thien Hue was founded. Then, the Provincial Party Committee was established in 1930. In April 1930, Vietnam Communist Party of Thua Thien Hue province was founded on the basis of these two organizations and organized national liberation. In August 23, 1945, Thua Thien Hue people. In August 30, 1945, locals witnessed the abdication ceremony of Emperor Bao Dai. The event marked the last feudal dynasty in Vietnamese history and opened up a new millennium for entire nation.

During the revolution against French, victories were made in Duong Hoa, Hoa My, etc. During 21 year-long revolution against America, Thua Thien Hue became one of the leading localities in people war in the South for national liberation. In March 26, 1975, Thua Thien Hue was entirely liberated, which contributed to liberating the South, entire Vietnam and developing society.

Overcoming aftermath difficulties, Thua Thien Hue has unceasingly made effort to keep up with country-wide development. Throughout history, all ups and downs are the motivation and belongings enable Thua Thien Hue province to enter a new millennium, to further develop and deserve ancestor's merits.
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